End of life care for urological cancer patients

Urological cancers encompass a heterogeneous group of malignancies, which differ in incidence, mortality and survival. Each year around 15,000 men and 2900 women die from a urological cancer, representing 6% and 1% of total death, respectively. The trajectory at end of life can be long and progressive as is often the case in those dying of prostate cancer. In contrast, a short illness punctuated by acute events is a more frequent scenario in, for example, bladder cancer. Nonetheless those who die from urological cancer share some certain common disease manifestations such as urinary tract bleeding, obstructive renal failure, a need for catheterisation and a requirement for pain relief.